Diet Glossary

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Diet Glossary

Postby patoco » Fri Jun 22, 2007 2:17 am

Diet Glossary

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Adipose Tissue: fatty tissue.

Albumin: protein that occurs in blood plasma.

Allergy: An unusually high sensitivity to normally harmless substances such as pollens, foods, or microorganisms. Common symptoms include sneezing, itching, eye irritation, and rashes.

Amino Acids: nitrogen-containing chemical compounds of which protein is composed.

Anemia: condition caused by insufficient number of red blood cells, hemoglobin, or blood supply.

Antioxidant: substance preventing damage from oxygen.

Antibiotic: A substance or drug used to treat infections, originally derived from fungi, bacteria and other organisms. Today, synthetic antibiotics have been produced to accomplish comparable tasks.

Antioxidants: Substances, such as beta-carotene and vitamins C and E, which block or inhibit oxidation within cells. Antioxidants may reduce the risks of cancer and slow the progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

Appetite: learned psychological reaction to food caused by pleasant memories of eating.

Arteriosclerosis: generic term for thickened arteries.

Atherosclerosis: a form of arteriosclerosis affecting the intima (inner lining) of the artery walls.

Balanced Diet: one that includes all the essential nutrients in appropriate amounts.

BIA: (Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis).

Bland Diet: diet containing only mild-flavored foods with soft textures.

BMI: (Body Mass Index).

BMR (Basal Metabolic Rate): the rate at which the energy is needed for body maintenance.

Cachexia: severe malnutrition and body wasting caused by chronic disease.

Caffeine: stimulant in coffee, tea and many cola drinks.

Calorie: A unit for measuring energy. The more calories a food has, the more energy-producing value it has. If you eat more calories than your body will use as fuel, the excess calories will be stored as fat. Certain foods contain various calories per gram:

- Proteins: contain 4 calories per gram, or 112 calories per ounce
- Fats: contain 9 calories per gram, or 252 calories per ounce
- Carbohydrates: contain 4 calories per gram, or 112 calories per ounce.

Caloric density: energy value; number of kcals in a food

Calorie Restriction: The reduction of calories that maintains adequate levels of proteins and essential fats while supplying adequate amounts of micronutrients (vitamins and minerals).

Carbohydrate: An organic substance, usually of plant origin with a carbon, hydrogen and oxygen composition, which serves as a major energy source in the diet.

Carcinogens: Substances that are capable of inducing cancerous changes in cells and/or tissues.

Cardiovascular: pertaining to the heart and the entire circulatory system.

Cardiovascular Disease: disease affecting heart and blood vessels.

Cellulose: indigestible carbohydrate; provides fiber in the diet

Cholesterol: Is a fatty, wax-like substance, necessary in small amounts for cell function, though harmful to the heart if too much is consumed or produced by the body.

- HDL (High-density lipoprotein) is considered "good cholesterol" because it scavenges "bad cholesterol" from the rest of the body and stores it in the liver.

- LDL (low-density lipoprotein) is considered "bad cholesterol" and builds up as plaque on arterial walls, thus it can place a person at risk for heart disease.

Clear-liquid diet: diet that includes only liquids containing primarily carbohydrates and water; nutritionally inadequate.

Convenience Food: food that has been partially prepared commercially and consequently is quickly and easily prepared at home.

Cosmeceuticals: Skin care products that contain vital nutrients which combat the damage of free-radicals and reduce inflammation, keeping skin in a youthful condition.

Crash Diets: fad type diets intended to reduce weight very quickly; in fact they reduce water, not fat tissue.

Daily Values (DV): represents percentage per serving of each nutritional item listed on new food labels based on daily intakes of 2,000 kcal.

Diabetes: A condition in which blood glucose (sugar) is not well controlled.

- Type 1 Diabetics make no insulin. Without some hormonal escort to bring nutrients into cells, they can starve to death even if they consume any quantity of food. Type 1 diabetics require insulin supplementation, usually via injection.

- Type-2 Diabetics are characterized by an overproduction of insulin and the inability of the target cells to respond to insulin (insulin resistance). By controlling insulin release through dietary measures, type-2 diabetics can help bring balance back to their hormonal systems.

Diastolic pressure: blood pressure measured when the heart is at rest.

Dietary assessment: evaluation of food habits.

Diet: A regulated selection of foods, as for medical reasons or cosmetic weight loss.

Dietary fiber: indigestible part of plants; absorbs water in large intestine, helping to create soft, bulky stool; some is believed to bind cholesterol in the colon, helping to rid cholesterol from the body; some is believed to lower blood glucose levels.

Diet Therapy: treatment of a disease through diet.

Digestion: breakdown of food in the body in preparation of absorption.

Diuretic: substances used to increase the amount of urine excreted.

Diverticulosis: intestinal disorder characterized by little pockets forming in the sides of the intestines; pockets are called diverticula.

Eicosanoid: An autocrine hormone made by virtually every cell in the body. "Good" eicosanoids are anti-inflammatory, whereas "bad"
eicosanoids cause inflammation.

Electrolyte: chemical compound that in water breaks up into electrically charged atoms called ions.

Elimination Diet: limited diet in which only certain foods are allowed; intended to find the food allergen causing reaction.

Energy Balance: occurs when the kcal value of food ingested equals the kcal expended.

Enriched Foods: foods to which nutrients, usually B vitamins and iron, have been added to improve their nutritional value.

EPA (Eicosapentaenoic Acid): An omega-3 fatty acid found in cold-water fish and fish-oil; a precursor to "good" eicosanoids.

Essential Fatty Acids (EFAs): Unsaturated fatty acids that are essential for health, but not produced by the body: EFAs are commonly found in cold-pressed oils, particularly in oils extracted from cold-water fish and certain seeds.

Essential Hypertension: high blood pressure with unknown cause; also called primary hypertension.

Exchange Lists: Lists of foods with interchangeable nutrient and calorie contents; used in specific forms of diet therapy.

Fad Diets: currently popular weight-reducing diets; usually nutritionally inadequate and not useful or permanent methods of weight reduction.

Fast foods: restaurant food that is ready to served before orders are taken.

Fat: Compounds composed of hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen atoms that serve as stored fuel for the body. There are different kinds of fats, some of which are healthier than others:

- Saturated Fats: unhealthy fats found in most animal products and tropical oils. With a high proportion of hydrogen atoms, they are solid at room temperature and are converted to cholesterol in the body.

- Mono-Unsaturated Fat:the healthiest fats, are produced by plants. With a lower amount of hydrogen atoms, they tend to be liquid at room temperature.

- Poly-Unsaturated Fats: have the lowest amount of hydrogen atoms, come from plant sources, and are liquid at room temperature.

- Hydrogenated Fats: found in processed foods and commercially baked goods, have an extra hydrogen atom added to them to make them solid at room temperature and to increase the shelf life of foods they are in. They are considered to be the most unhealthy.

Fats: highest kcal-value nutrient.

Fat Cell Theory: belief that fat cells have a natural drive to regain any weigh lost.

Fatty Acids: a component of fats that determines the classification of fat.

Fiber: The indigestible portion of plant matter and an important component of a healthy diet. It is capable of binding to toxins and escorting them out of the body.

Food Diary: written record of all food and drink ingested in a specified periods.

Food Guide Pyramid: outline for making food selections based on Dietary Guidelines.

Fortified: foods that have had vitamins and minerals added.

Free Radical: An atom or group of atoms with at least one unpaired electron. Because free radicals are highly reactive, they can alter the chemical structure of cells and may accelerate the progression of cancer and cardiovascular disease.

Free Radicals: Are highly reactive, imbalanced molecules that are the byproducts of normal metabolism and are associated with the degenerative aging process. Free radicals steal electrons from healthy cells to neutralize their own charge, causing cellular damage. Free radicals are also produced by exposure to cigarette smoke, smog and other environmental pollutants, harmful chemicals, toxins, and even sunlight. Antioxidant supplementation will help counter the effects of free radicals.

Functional Foods: Foods that have been enriched or fortified with vitamins, herbs, or minerals to provide a health benefit beyond the product's traditional nutrients. For example: orange juice with calcium.

Gastric Bypass: surgical reduction of the stomach.

Gestational Diabetes: diabetes occurring during pregnancy; usually disappears after the delivery of the infant.

Glucose: Is the simplest form of sugar and circulates in the bloodstream to be used by cells as fuel. Glucose is the primary fuel used by the brain and is stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen.

Glycemic Index: A measure of the rate at which a carbohydrate will enter the bloodstream as glucose. Some simple sugars, such as table sugar, will enter the bloodstream slower than many complex carbohydrates, such as bread, rice, and potatoes. The faster a carbohydrate enters the bloodstream, the higher its glycemic index. The higher the glycemic index of a carbohydrate, the greater the increase in insulin levels. Fruits and vegetables tend to have a low-glycemic index, whereas breads, pasta, grains, and starches tend to have a high-glycemic index.

Glycemic Load: Is a measure of the density and digestion speed of carbohydrates (the glycemic index of a food multiplied by the amount of carbohydrates per serving). The goal of Zone eating is to keep the glycemic load low. Carrots, for example, even though they have a high glycemic index, have a much lower glycemic load than pasta because they are less carbohydrate-dense.

Grams: smallest unit of measurement of weight in the metric system.

Healthy Foods: said by food faddist to have special health-giving characteristics.

High-density lipoprotein (HDLs): lipoproteins that carry cholesterol from cells to the liver for eventual excretion.

High-glycemic: A food is considered to be high-glycemic if it is broken down rapidly and enters the bloodstream quickly as glucose.

Hormones: Biological compounds that communicate information throughout the body.

Hunger: Physiological need for food.

Hydrogenation: the combining of fat with hydrogen, thereby making it a saturated fat and solid at room temperature.

Hypercholesterolemia: unusually high level of cholesterol in blood; also known as high serum cholesterol.

Hyperglycemia: excessive amounts of sugar in the blood.

Hyperkalemia: excessive amounts of potassium.

Hyperlipidemia: excessive amounts of fats in the blood.

Hypermetabolic: higher than normal rate of metabolism.

Hypertension: higher than normal blood pressure.

Hypoglycemia: subnormal levels of sugars in the blood.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease: chronic condition causing inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract.

Insulin: The hormone that drives incoming nutrients into cells for storage. Excess insulin is the cause of weight gain and many degenerative illnesses. Secretion of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas gland; essential fro the proper metabolism of glucose.

Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (type 1 or IDDM): Diabetes occurring suddenly between the ages of 1 and 40; patients secrete little, if any, insulin and require insulin injections and a carefully controlled diet.

Insulin Resistance: A condition in which cells no longer respond well to insulin. As a result, the body secretes more insulin into the bloodstream in an effort to reduce blood glucose levels.

Isoflavones: Plant-based compound with estrogen-like properties that are found primarily in soy beans. Isoflavens can act as low-dose estrogens.
and can also lessen estrogen's effect on cells and skin layers, possibly reducing the risks of estrogen-related cancers.

Invisible Fats: fats that are not immediately noticeable such as those in egg yolk, cheese, cream, and salad dressings.

Ketones: substances to which fatty acids are broken down in the liver.

Ketosis: condition in which keystones collect in the blood; caused by insufficient glucose available for energy.

Lactase: enzyme secreted by; the small intestine for the digestion of lactose.

Lacto-Ovo Vegetarian: vegetarians who will eat dairy products and eggs but no meat, fish or poultry.

Lactose: the sugar in milk; a disaccharide.

Lacto-Vegetarian: vegetarians who eat dairy product.

Lean Body Mass: the percentage of muscles in the tissue.

Legumes: plant food that is grown in a pod; for example peas and beans.

Lipid: fat.

Lipoproteins: carriers of fat in the blood.

Low Density Lipoproteins (LDLs): carries blood cholesterol to the cells.

Low-glycemic: Low glycemic foods are broken down into glucose less quickly than high-glycemic foods and enter the bloodstream at a much slower rate.

Macronutrients: Foods that contain calories and can therefore generate hormonal responses. Proteins, fats, and carbohydrates are macronutrients.

Metabolism: the use of food by the body after digestion which results in energy

Micronutrients: Vitamins and minerals that have no caloric value and little direct impact on hormonal response, but are a vital means of achieving optimal health.

Mineral: A micro-nutrient that is neither animal- nor plant-based such as calcium, iron, potassium, sodium, and zinc, which is essential to the nutrition of humans, animals, and plants.

Monounsaturated Fat: fats that are neither saturated nor polyunsaturated and are thought to play little part in atherosclerosis.

Natural Foods: These foods are minimally processed and contain no artificial colors, flavorings, preservatives or sweeteners.

Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (Type 2): Diabetes occurring after age 40;onset is gradual and production of insulin gradually diminishes; can usually be controlled by diet and exercise.

Nutrients: chemical substance found in food that is necessary for good health.

Nutrient Dense Food: foods that contain many nutrients but few calories (kcals)

Nutraceuticals: Components of foods or dietary supplements that have medicinal or therapeutic effects [nutrition/natural + (pharma)ceuticals].

Obesity: A condition characterized by the excessive accumulation and storage of body fat, excessive body fat, 20% above average.

Omega-3s: Essential Fatty Acids found primarily in cold-water fish and purified fish oils, omega-3s are the building blocks for "good" eicosanoids.

Omega-6: An Essential Fatty Acid found in protein and most seed oils, Omega-6 can generate both "good" and "bad" eicosanoids.

Omega-9: An essential fatty acid that has neutral effects on hormone production, i.e. does not produce "good" or "bad" eicosanoids.

Organic Foods: Products that only contain ingredients grown with "earth friendly" methods. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) strictly enforces proper production of these foods is by using the following categories:

100% Organic - Foods that contain all organically produced ingredients. Labeling may include the "100% Organic" label, along with the USDA organic seal.

USDA Certified Organic - Products with 95% or more organic ingredients. These foods may be labeled as "Organic" and carry the USDA organic seal.

Made with Organic Ingredients - These products are composed of 70-95% organic ingredients. Up to three organic ingredients may be listed on the front of the package along with being labeled as "Made with Organic Ingredients."

Organic - Foods that include less than 70% organic content can be labeled "Organic." This term can be found on the information panel on applicable products.

Osteoporosis: condition in which bones become brittle because there have been insufficient mineral deposits, especially calcium.

Overweight: weight 10-20% above average.

Ovo-Vegetarian: vegetarians who will eat eggs.

Phytochemicals: substances occurring naturally in plant foods
Plaque: fatty deposits on the interior of artery walls.

Plaque: fatty deposits on the interior of artery walls.

Polyunsaturated Fat: fats whose carbon atoms contain only limited amounts of hydrogen.

Proteins: the only one of six essential nutrients containing nitrogen.

RDA: An acronym for Recommended Daily Allowance or Recommended Dietary Allowance. The estimated amount of a nutrient, or calories, per day considered necessary for the maintenance of good health as determined by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

Registered Dietitian: a person who has graduated from college or university after completing a course of study accredited by the American Dietetic Association (ADA).

Regular Diet: Normal diet, based upon the food guide pyramid.
Saturated Fat: A fat that is solid at room temperature. Although most are of animal origin, some like coconut oil and palm oil come from plants. An excess of saturated fats in the diet may raise cholesterol levels in the bloodstream.

Saturated Fat: fats whose carbon atoms contain all of the hydrogen atoms they can;considered a contributory factor in atherosclerosis.

Secondary diabetes mellitus: rare disease caused by certain drugs or disease of the pancreas.

Secondary hypertension: high blood pressure caused by another condition such as kidney disease.

Serum cholesterol: cholesterol in the blood.

Set Point Theory: belief that everyone has a natural weight ("set point") at which the body is most comfortable.

Standard Diets: basic diets used by most hospitals; can be modified texture, kcal, nutrient content.

Stomach Banding: surgical reduction of stomach, but to lesser degree than bypass.

Therapeutic Diets: diets used in treatment of disease.

Trace Minerals: minerals that are essential but only in very small amounts.

Triglycerixdes: combination of fatty acids and glycerol.

Vegan: These products are derived solely from plant origin, excluding animal protein (such as meat, eggs, dairy products or honey).

Vegans: vegetarians that avoid all animal foods.

Very-low-density Lipoproteins (VLDLPs): lipoproteins made by the liver to transport lipids throughout the body.

Visible Fats: fats in foods that are purchased and used as fats, such as butter or margarine.

Vegetarian: Foods derived from plant sources, such as vegetables, fruits, grains, legumes and nuts. May contain some animal protein, usually using egg or dairy products as ingredients.

Vitamin: One of a group of organic substances essential in small quantities for life. For the most part, they must be supplied through the diet, since the body does not manufacture them.

Yo-Yo Dieting: refers to crash diets; the dieter's weight goes up and down over short periods because these diets do not change eating habits.

Original Post June 18, 2006 - 440 views
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Re: Diet Glossary

Postby patoco » Thu Oct 08, 2009 10:45 am

Reviewed October 8, 2009
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